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Reverse Phone Lookup

It is quite accepted consistently that you had the best phone in town. Awesome features, abundant computability, cool articulation clarity, massive anamnesis and the awesome system for sound but this account consists of endless features. One appropriate bare from the just mentioned account is to encompass huge bulk of contacts. Well, you got various ways to sort them as well. But what if somebody rings your new toy with an alien number? You may enquire who it is. Carefully browsing the bounded agenda is of no admonition either. So users here we introduce you to your savior – Reverse Cell Phone Lookup facility offered by Telecom companies.

Using Kerbside Caddies For Waste Management

Try as one might, there is just no way to live without generating a certain amount of waste, and taking care of this in a prompt and simple fashion is a good way to keep both the house and neighborhood clean. There are many ways of taking out the trash, and one of the best is through the use of kerbside caddies. These bins can hold loose trash or entire bags of trash, and have many convenient features that take the hassle out of trash removable.

Psychological Climate In An Online Course

“We had started calling the program the “The Revolving Door,” because things had gotten so bad. Students would take a few classes, disappear, and then reappear. We never had any idea why.” Kelsen, the manager of the department’s online programs was describing the situation in the office. The tension in her voice was notable, and she twisted a piece of paper in her hands.
“It didn’t make sense. Enrollments were at an all-time high, we were getting all sorts of positive publicity, and we had been approved for an increased budget. We had money for more activities, online textbooks, faculty training. But, the students did not seem to be happy.”
Why is morale bad when online courses are getting better and better? Many institutions experiencing a boom in their online course enrollments are confronting this issue. Because of the rapid growth and rate of change that characterize most online learning programs, morale within the student body may be very low. No one knows about it until it’s too late. Vroom’s expectancy theory helps explain it, as does the concept of “psychological climate.” This article explores the theory and applies it to the online learning program.
For many years, V.H. Vroom’s 1964 classic, Work and Motivation, has been pointed to as a model for how the expectations that individuals have of their workplace, their coworkers, and their employer, can deeply influence motivation. In the second edition of Work and Motivation, Vroom writes that “the choices made by person among alternative courses of action are lawfully related to psychological events occurring contemporaneously within the behavior” (Vroom 1982: 14-15). In other words, there are psychological “laws” that govern the way a person feels and acts.
Kelsen’s experience supported what Vroom found. “It starts with students starting to email their advisors. They start by blaming the recruiter. Later, they say it’s not like the experiences they have with FaceBook MySpace, and their iPhones. The were hoping for something like the things they’re used to.”
“In the past, though, students had low expectations. They were always happy — perhaps because they found the courses better than they thought they would. Now, in the age of iPhones and BlackBerry, everyone thinks they should be able to access their courses any time, any place. They also expect raw, spontaneous video clips, like the ones you might find in YouTube.”
Vroom goes on to articulate his “expectancy theory”: “The force motivating a person to exert effort or to perform an act in a job situation depends on the interaction between what the individual wants from a job (valence) and the degree to which he/she believes that the company will reward effort exerted (expectancy) on that job with the things he/she wants. Individuals believe that if they behave in a certain way (instrumentality), they will receive certain job features (Vroom 1982).” This definitely helps explain why it is so important to not arouse expectations unnecessarily, and that if managed well, expectations can be huge motivators, and can connect to one’s behavior and/or performance.
Recent studies have expanded Vroom’s expectancy theory, and have pointed out that expectations have a great deal to do with how the “psychological climate” is formed in the workplace, classroom, or even virtual meeting space. The psychological climate, which can be positive or negative, is made up of various aspects which contain expectations. Lawler and Suttle (1973) developed various categories of expectations, and many researchers, such as Darden, Hampton and Howell (1989) and Sims, Szilagyi, and McKerney (1976), further connected them to leadership qualities. According to Litwin and Stringer (1966), leadership style is critical in managing expectations and one of the most important determinants of psychological climate.
In 1988, researchers Good and Sisler conducted a study of individuals in retailing to determine the components of psychological climate. Here are the resulting categories:
Note that these can also apply to online learning.
Role clarity
Role harmony
Task autonomy
Task variety and challenge
Task importance
Role assignment
When Kelsen heard the description of psychological climate, she gave a wry smile. “Yes, that’s precisely it. We have a very toxic psychological climate. I’m not proud of it, but that’s what it is. I’d like to know what to do.”
She also related to later studies. For example, Woodard, Casill, and Herr (1994) completed a study which required employees to rank the components of psychological climate and to assign relative importance to each one. The results are strikingly applicable to the management of an online program team which includes support staff, administrative personnel, faculty, and administration. Here they are, with comments that make connections between the original results and apply them to the online learning organization:
#1 — Role Assignment: Team members are given sufficient time, training, and resources are provided to perform an assigned task so that it is clear what outcome is expected of them.
#2 — Role Harmony: Student receives information about what is expected of him or her in the execution of the job, and it is compatible with job expectations; and later, when detailing the behaviors involved in the performance of the job, expected behaviors are consistent with the employee’s understanding of the job. The expectations, requirements, and desired outcomes are clearly spelled out and updated regularly. Models of successful behaviors and outcomes are provided.
#3 — Role Clarity: Expected role behaviors have been clearly defined to the employee, and everyone involved has the same expectation.
#4 — Organizational Identification: In reviewing his or her role in the organization, the student believes his/her organization performs an important function, and in doing so, offers unique opportunities for growth and reward, resulting in the fact that the employee takes pride in the organization. Risk-taking is encouraged, and if an idea does not work, team members are encouraged to explore how their expectations were different than the outcome, and how lessons learned can help salvage or repurpose the results.
#5 — Leader Goal Emphasis and Work Facilitation: The instructor encourages and stimulates individuals to become personally involved in meeting learning goals by stressing high performance standards, creating an atmosphere that rewards high performance, and then participating in the work himself or herself, therefore setting an example. The leaders does not co-opt or deliberately outperform the individuals.

Bilingual ELearning: Challenges And Opportunities

With more than 35 million Spanish speakers in the United States, it makes sense for educational providers to make courses available in Spanish as well as in English. Further, it makes sense that training could be offered in a bilingual environment to facilitate communication between people of different groups and foster an environment of mutual understanding.

It’s a great idea, but there are many challenges, as well as opportunities. Almost everyone agrees the demand exists, but identifying where and how to approach this massive issue continues to be an area of some disagreement.

Here are a few of the challenges and opportunities:

Choosing An Online Program

Online learning has seen an explosion in popularity in recent years. According to an annual report published by the Sloan Consortium (Sloan-C), nearly 3.5 million students were taking at least one online course in 2006. They also reported that one in five higher education students were taking an online course in the fall of 2006. The growth rate reported for online learning was nearly 10%.
To meet the demand, as of 2000 over half of the degree granting institutions in the U.S. offered some type of distance education. By 2002 the number was expected to rise to 84% .
Access is the reason most often cited for the increase in both interest and the number of online offerings. Online course offerings and programs provide greater access to education for potential students. This is especially true for working adults who are looking for ways to further or change careers. Access is also the number 1 reason cited by educational institutions for the increase in their online offerings, followed by attracting students from beyond their traditional service area, and growing continuing or professional education .
There are also studies by groups such as the Distance Learning and Education Council and Eduventures that indicate growing acceptance of online education programs. An Eduventures study indicated that more than 60% of managers or human resource professionals view online degrees favorably. Studies including Sloan-C’s indicate increasing levels of acceptance of online learning among professional educators as well.
Popular Online Universities
Here’s are a few of the larger universities that have a focus on online programs (see a longer list in the left column):
AIU Online provides degree and non-degree programs in business, education and other career-centric areas
Capella University is an entirely online university that maintains a focus on graduate programs
University of Phoenix Online is a very large and established online educator with a strong breadth of programs and degrees.
There are, however, still prejudices against online programs and degrees within both the academic community and the hiring community. A study conducted by Jonathan Adams (Director of Interactive and New Communication Technologies at Florida State University) and Margaret H. DeFleur (Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research at Louisiana State University), indicates a much lower degree of acceptance of online education and degrees on the part of hiring managers and educational institutions .
Given the increasing popularity and proliferation of online learning and courses, as well as varying degrees of acceptance, it is important for individuals to have a framework with which to evaluate online learning offerings. Prospective students need to evaluate programs to maximize their potential for getting a good, sound, education that will be looked upon favorably by the academic and hiring communities. This paper will highlight the top factors that individuals should take into consideration when evaluating online learning.
Sloan-C defines an online course as one in which at least 80% of course content is delivered online. Courses with less online content are considered to by blended or hybrid (30-79% online content) or “web facilitated” (< 30% online content).
Top Considerations When Evaluation Online Learning
Is On-line Training Right for You?
Probably the best place to start is with a little introspection and self examination. Questions that you should ask yourself include:
Why do you want to take an online course versus a more traditional instructor delivered course?
Is online learning compatible with your needs and the way that you learn?
How comfortable are you with a computer and technology?
Many people look into online learning because they think it will be faster or easier. Both are common misconceptions. A quality online course or program should be every bit as demanding as its classroom counterpart. Also, because many online courses are self-paced, they may actually take longer for a student to complete, especially for working adults who are juggling other life commitments.
Online learning is a fairly solitary and self-directed undertaking. This is especially true of online courses that progress at a student's own pace as opposed to those on a schedule with specific deadlines. Online learning also requires some facility with a computer. If you are an individual who needs structure or direction, or who thinks that the social aspects of an education (live interaction with other students and faculty, campus events, etc.) are appealing or important, than online learning may not be the right vehicle for you.
Expectation issues may be the reason that so many students (15% at post secondary and degree granting post secondary institutions) actually never start their distance education course (2007 Distance Education Survey, DETC). Once over the initial hurdles, however, course completion rates (75% or better) and graduation (65% or better) are fairly high for distance education (2007 Distance Education Survey, DETC).
What is the quality of the institution offering the online course/program?
One of the main indicators of the quality of an educational institution is accreditation. Accreditation is a process of peer-review of educational institutions and programs against established quality criteria by an independent, non-governmental, private educational association known as an accrediting agency. At a minimum, a prospective student should consider programs that are nationally accredited by an agency that is recognized by the U.S. Department of Education. Even better is to consider the programs of an institution that is accredited by one of the 6 regional accrediting agencies, and their 8 commissions. The regional accrediting agencies are generally believed to be the highest form of accreditation in the United States. For more on accreditation see: Understanding Accreditation of Online Education Programs.